In weaving, the weft (typically woof) is the thread or yarn which is drawn via, inserted over-and-underneath, the lengthwise warp yarns which might be held in tension on a frame or loom to create cloth. Warp is the lengthwise or longitudinal thread in a roll, while weft is the transverse thread. A single thread of the weft, crossing the warp, known as a pick. Terms do fluctuate (as an example, in North America, the weft is generally known as thefill or thefilling yarn). Each particular person warp thread in a fabric is named awarp end orend.
The weft is a thread or yarn often made from spun fibre. The unique fibres used were wool, flax and cotton. Right this moment, man-made fibres are often utilized in weaving. Because the weft doesn’t need to be stretched on a loom in the best way that the warp is, it could usually be much less strong.
The weft is threaded through the warp using a “shuttle”, air jets or “rapier grippers”. Hand looms have been the original weaver’s tool, with the shuttle being threaded by alternately raised warps by hand. Innovations during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the “selecting stick” and the “flying shuttle” (John Kay, 1733) speeding up production of cloth. The facility loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute.
A helpful way of remembering which is warp and which is weft is: ‘considered one of them goes from weft to wight’.
The words woof and weft derive in the end from the Old English phrase wefan, to weave. Warp means “that which is thrown away” (Previous English wearp, from weorpan, to throw, cf. German werfen, Dutch werpen).
On a loom, the warp is the set of yarns or different elements stretched in place earlier than the weft is launched in the course of the weaving process.The term can be used for a set of yarns established before the interworking of weft yarns by some other technique, resembling finger manipulation yielding wrapped or twined constructions. In a completed fabric with two or more units of elements, the warp is the longitudinal set.
Very simple looms use a spiral warp, by which a single, very long yarn is wound round a pair of sticks or beams in a spiral pattern to make up the warp.
Because the warp is held beneath high tension during your complete process of weaving and warp yarn have to be sturdy, yarn for warp ends is usually spun and plied fibre. Traditional fibres for warping are wool, linen, alpaca, and silk. With the enhancements in spinning expertise during the Industrial Revolution, it grew to become doable to make cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used as the warp in mechanized weaving. Later, synthetic or man-made fibres reminiscent of nylon or rayon had been employed.
Whereas most individuals are aware of weft-confronted weavings, it is feasible to create warp-confronted weavings using densely arranged warp threads. In warp-faced weavings, the design for the textile is in the warp, and so all colours should be determined upon and placed throughout the first part of the weaving course of and cannot be changed. Warp-confronted weavings are outlined by length-clever stripes and vertical designs on account of the limitations of coloration placement. Many South American cultures, including the ancient Incas and Aymaras used a kind of warp-confronted weaving referred to as backstrap weaving, which makes use of the load of the weaver’s physique to control the tension of the loom.
The expression “woof and warp” (additionally “warp and woof”, “warp and weft”) is sometimes used metaphorically as one would possibly equally use “fabric”; e.g., “the warp and woof of a pupil’s life” means “the fabric of a pupil’s life.” The expression is used as a metaphor for the underlying structure on which one thing is constructed. Warp or woof are additionally words found within the Bible in the dialogue of mildews present in cloth materials in Leviticus thirteen:48-59.
Weft is also a hairdressing time period for short-term hair extensions. It can be attached to an individual’s hair in a pair of ways together with cornrow braiding, utilizing steel cylinders or gluing.